Words, words, words. There are so many words in the English language. It is estimated that an English-speaking high school graduate knows at least 20,000 word families while a language learner needs around 8,000-9,000 word families to understand a variety of authentic texts, IELTS reading and listening texts included (Nation, 2006). In addition, in the speaking interview and writing tasks of the IELTS test, test takers’ vocabulary resource is explicitly assessed through the lexical resource criterion. Students and teachers know the great importance of vocabulary, but how can IELTS instructors address the need for vocabulary development in their IELTS course? In this blog post, I will cover some research-based observations about vocabulary development and make suggestions on resources for IELTS instructors.
Vocabulary size matters. In fact, previous research has shown that IELTS test takers’ orthographic vocabulary size explains 58% of the variance in the overall IELTS band score, leaving over 40% to all other factors (Milton, Wade & Hopkins, 2010). While it is difficult to have an exact estimate of one’s vocabulary size, I have found Lextutor’s Vocabulary Level Tests to be very helpful for students. When directed to this website, students can complete the 2,000-Level Test, 3,000-Level Test, 5,000-Level Test, University Word List Test, and 10,000-Level Test within 30 minutes or so. This will give them an indication of the percentage of words that they know within each level. This knowledge helps teachers gauge their students’ vocabulary size and also motivates learners to work harder on expanding it.
It is intuitive to focus on more frequent words before less frequent words when teaching vocabulary. As language teachers, you may already be very familiar with these frequency lists, but I’d like to mention a few must-know ones, including the General Service List (GSL), the Academic Word List (AWL), and the Academic Vocabulary List (AVL) from the Corpus Contemporary American English (COCA). You will need to sign up for an account to download the list, but you can also use the corpus to search for thousands of examples of how each word is used. These examples can be helpful for both teachers preparing a vocabulary lesson and for students to deepen their knowledge of a word.
Basic principles and involvement load
While vocabulary is undeniably important, teachers usually need to cover so many objectives in a lesson or a course that there is never enough time to dedicate to vocabulary teaching. Therefore, the following basic principles from Nation (1990), a leading expert in vocabulary instruction, can help keep you on track.
Keep it simple and clear when explaining vocabulary. Relate to past knowledge. Give attention to words that are already partly known. Don’t bring in unknown or poorly known related words. In addition, research has shown that the more involved students are with the word (or the higher the involvement load), the more likely they will learn it. Therefore, in a meaning-based lesson, teachers can:
- pre-teach important words, draw learners’ attention to words appearing in the text, help students use vocabulary resources, create follow-up exercises for students to practice the words, and provide opportunities for students to use the words.
Other vocabulary resources and activities
When I teach IELTS preparation, I always take time to explain important words appearing in the teaching materials that I think students partially know or do not know. All of my students have access to a shared Google document, and we take notes on these words together. I often involve students in creating Kahoot or Quizizz games based on these words and have them present the games to the whole class. I also introduce websites that allow them to search for how words are used in various contexts. These include COCA, youenglish.com, which has thousands of results of a word and how it is used in TED Talks or YouTube videos, and PlayPhrase.me, which shows results of words used in movies and TV shows.
One of my favourite vocabulary activities that always generates a lot of talking and laughter is what I call Crosswords Puzzle Partner. I usually create a crosswords puzzle with about 10 target words on two handouts. Students work in pairs as Student A and Student B. Student A has all of the words across, and Student B has all of the words in columns. They will need to talk to each other to complete the puzzle together. See my earlier blog post for a more detailed description of this activity. Overall, I have found that these resources and activities get students more actively involved and increase the chance of acquiring new words.
Even though vocabulary is such an important component of IELTS preparation and language development, it is often overlooked in skills-based classes. Hopefully this blog post provides a few ideas and resources that can be used in your own classes. Try them, and you may find a new favorite activity.
If you would like to continue the conversation, head to our LinkedIn page, and be sure to follow us.
- Milton, J., Wade, J. & Hopkins, N. (2010). Aural word recognition and oral competence in English as a foreign language. In R. Chacón-Beltrán, C. Abello-Contesse, & M. Torreblanca-López (eds.). Insights Into Non-native Vocabulary Teaching and Learning. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
- Nation, I.S.P. (1990). Teaching and Learning Vocabulary. Boston: Heinle and Heinle.
- Nation, I.S.P. (2006). How large a vocabulary is needed for reading and listening? The Canadian Modern Language Review 63, 59–82.
About the author
Dr Linh Phung is Founder of Eduling International Academy, a Pittsburgh-based academy offering online English language instruction and services to students from any location. Eduling has IELTS courses and services at different levels of proficiency. With many years of teaching experience, Dr Linh Phung and Eduling instructors have helped students from many countries improve their English language skills and IELTS test-taking strategies.
The views and opinions expressed in this blog post are solely those of the guest contributing writer. These views and opinions do not necessarily represent those of IELTS.